by Kojiro Shiraiwa & Matt Paulsen

In this website, we would like to introduce you to a small Lucanid group found in the Andes Mountains of Chile and Argentina.
Stag beetles in the genus Pycnosiphorus are found in the Nothofagus forests of Patagonia.  There are approximately 20 species.  Although relationships among the Lucanids are unclear, their closest relatives may be beetles from the Australian region (genus Lissotes).  Several insect groups are similarly restricted to Patagonia and Australia.  Along with Pycnosiphorus, these groups provide evidence of a biogeographical connection between these two areas in the past (i.e., Gondwana).
These beetles are known in Japan as "samehada kuwagata", or shark-skin stag beetles.  This common name is derived from species like P. caelatus and P. mandibularis which have a rough texture to the elytra.  Samehadas are sometimes sold as pets in Japanese insects shops.


Two types of mandibles in genus Pycnosiphorus.

Orange stripes on elytra (P. magnificus).
As you can see above, lines are actualy, small scales.

Unless noted, male specimen is on left and female on right.

Pycnosiphorus mandibularis (Solier, 1851)

Body length: 15mm / 13mm
Type species of Pycnosiphorus.

Pycnosiphorus varasi (Nagel, 1932)

Canete, Arauco, CHILE
Body length: 14mm / 13mm

Pycnosiphorus germaini Numhauser, 1985

Araucania, CHILE
Body length: 14mm / 13mm

Pycnosiphorus philippi (Westwood, 1864)

Nuble, Recinto, CHILE
December 1998
Body length: 14.5mm
This specimen is rather worn out one.
Fresh caught specimen has whitish yellow stripes along edges of the thorax and on the elytra wings.

Pycnosiphorus magnificus Benesh, 1956

Tregualemu, Canquenes, CHILE
Dec-Jan, 1998
Body length: 17mm / 14mm
P. magnificus Weinreich, 1958

Pycnosiphorus vittatus (Eschscholtz, 1822)

Lebu, Arauco, CHILE
January 1998
Body length: 15mm / 15mm
P. rouleti (Solier, 1851)
P. rubrovittatus (Blanchard, 1842)

Pycnosiphorus caelatus (Blanchard, 1842)

Canete, Arauco, CHILE
December 15-30, 1998
Body length: 20mm / 16mm
P. variolosus (Hope et Westwood, 1845)
P. vittatus (Burmeister, 1845)

Pycnosiphorus virgatus (Nagel, 1928)

Tolgueca, Malleco, CHILE
December 3-9, 1998
Body length: 19mm / 15mm
Nomen nudum
P. striatus Philippi et Germain, 1911

Pycnosiphorus franzae Weinreich, 1958

Canete, Arauco, CHILE
April 1998
Body length: 22mm / 18mm

Pycnosiphorus arriguttii Weinreich, 1958

Body length:
18mm / 14mm

Pycnosiphorus femoralis (Guérin-Meneville, 1839)

Body length:
19mm / 18mm
P. darwinii (Hope, 1841)
P. rufifemoralis (Curtis, 1844)
P. rubripes (Hope et Westwood, 1845)
P. modestus (Philippi, 1859)
P. leiocephalus (Solier, 1851)
P. rufipes (Solier, 1851)
P. spinolae (Solier, 1851)

Pycnosiphorus fasciatus (Germain, 1855)

Body length: 15mm / 15mm

Pycnosiphorus costatus Benesh, 1951

Body length: 14.5mm
Nomen nudum
P. costatus (Germain, 1911)

Pycnosiphorus calverti (Nagel, 1932)

Lonquimay, Malleco, CHILE
December 2-9, 1998
Body length: 14mm / 12mm
P. ariasi (Weinreich, 1958)
Nomen nudum
P. calverti (Germain, 1911)

Pycnosiphorus brevicollis Benesh, 1956

Maule, CHILE
December 1994
Body length: 13mm
Nomen nudum
P. brevicollis (Germain, 1911)

Pycnosiphorus fairmairii (Parry, 1864)

Cunco, Valdivia, CHILE
February 3-9, 1998
Body length: 12mm

Pycnosiphorus lessonii (Buquet, 1842)

Valdivia, CHILE
December 1997
Body length: 13mm / 11mm

Two males of different size, sold as a "pair"

Pycnosiphorus marginipennis (Deyrolle, 1870)

Callihue, CHILE
December 15, 1995
Body length: 12.5mm / 13.5mm
Has red legs.
P. pulcher Landin, 1956

Other species not illustrated here:
P. pallidocinctus (Fairmaire et Germain, 1861)
P. elongatus (Deyrolle, 1870) possibly synonym of P. lessonii.
P. westwoodi Numhauser, 1985

(c) Kojiro Shiraiwa 2003-2004.  All rights reserved.
Last updated: July 15, 2004